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College Constitution

EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF VETERINARY OPHTHALMOLOGISTS (ECVO ©)
(Founded Nov. 27th, 1992 in Giessen, Germany)


CONSTITUTION (ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION)

(Amended Barcelona, 18th April 2002)
(Amended Munich, 10th June 2004)
(Amended in Brugge, 11th May 2006)
(Amended in Genova, 1st June 2007)
(Amended in Versailles, 16th May 2008)
(Amended in Copenhagen, 4th June 2009)
(Amended in Berlin, 27th May 2010)
(Amended in Helsinki, 28th May 2015)


Article 1. Location, Name and Structure.

1.1. The name of the organisation shall be the European College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists (ECVO ©), hereafter referred to as "the College".

1.2 The College shall have its domicile in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The office address may be changed at the discretion of the Executive Committee.

1.3. The College shall be a part of the general scheme for veterinary specialization in the E.U., as has been defined by the Advisory Committee for Veterinary Training (ACVT) of the European Committee. This scheme involves the European Coordinating Committee for Veterinary Training, the European Board of Veterinary Specialization (EBVS), and the Speciality Colleges.


Article 2. Duration.

2.1. The College shall be established for an unlimited period.

2.2. The College year shall run concurrently with the calendar year, subject to the first society year ending on the last day of December of the year in which the College is established.


Article 3. Objectives and Statements.

The primary objectives of the College shall be to advance veterinary ophthalmology in Europe and increase the competency of those who practise in this field by:

a) establishing guidelines for post-graduate education and training as a prerequisite to becoming a specialist in the speciality of veterinary ophthalmology;

b) examining and authenticating veterinarians as specialists in veterinary ophthalmology to serve the veterinary patient, its owner and the public in general, by providing expert care for animals with ophthalmic disease;

c) encouraging research and other contributions to knowledge relating to the pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy, prevention, and the control of diseases directly or indirectly affecting the eye of all animals, and promoting communication and dissemination of this knowledge.

d) The College is a non profit-making organisation and does not pursue commercial interests.

e) College funds may only be spent according to the constitution. Members or officers of the College receive no payment from the funds of the College, except reimbursements.

f) No member or officer of the College may be favoured by expenditures or excessively high compensations, which are not in accordance with the purposes of the College.


Article 4. Membership.

Section 1.

The members of the College shall be the following:

a) Founding Diplomates
b) Diplomates
c) Honorary Members
d) Retired Diplomates
e) Non-practising Diplomates
f) Associate Members
g) Affiliate Members


Section 2.

To qualify for membership, candidates shall meet the following criteria:

a) have a satisfactory moral and ethical standing in the profession;
b) be licensed, or be eligible to be licensed, to practise veterinary medicine in Europe unless exempted from this obligation by the Credentials Committee and the Executive Committee;
c) have successfully passed the certifying/examination procedure of the European College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists, unless exempted from this obligation by the Credentials Committee and the Executive Committee.

Section 3.

Each individual who has successfully passed the qualification procedure of the College shall be designated Diplomate of the European College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists and shall be authorized to use the designation of Diplomate of the European College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists (Dip. ECVO; European Veterinary Specialist in Ophthalmology), with the exception of section 7 of this Constitution.

Section 4.

Each Diplomate shall be required to keep records of his/her ophthalmological patients and surgical procedures.

Section 5.

Each Diplomate is expected to actively participate in the affairs of the College. Repeated, unexcused absences from the ECVO-meetings may render a member subject to disciplinary action by the Executive Committee of the ECVO.

Section 6.

Each Diplomate is guided by scientific methods and evidence based medicine, which complies with animal welfare legislation. Each Diplomate shall also fulfil the re-evaluation requirements of the ECVO. No credit points can be granted for education or training in non-scientific or non- evidence-based medicine.

Section 7.

Any Diplomate may be expelled, asked to resign or otherwise disciplined for unprofessional or unethical conduct, or other action against the best interest of the College by a unanimous vote of the Executive Committee of the ECVO, pending confirmation by the College at the next Annual General Meeting. The expelled Diplomate is removed from the EBVS specialist register and is not allowed to use the Diplomate title or its abbreviations.

Section 8.

Voluntary cessation of registration requires notice in writing to be received by the Secretary twelve months prior to the College's Annual General Meeting and will be published at the Annual General Meeting.

Section 9.

The annual dues (Euro) of each active member for the following years shall be determined by the Annual General Meeting.


Article 5. Organisation and Officers.

The College shall be composed of all the Diplomates. Every two years the Diplomates will elect the following officers, by secret ballot:

• President
• Vice-President

Every three years the Diplomates will elect the following officers, by secret ballot:

• Treasurer
• Secretary

These four officers, and the Past-President, will comprise the Board of the College. Up to two additional Diplomates may be co-opted as observers and added to this Board if the five officers agree unanimously to create an Executive Committee of the College composed of seven members.

The President may not be re-elected to the same office. Usually, the President is succeeded by the Vice-President.

The College will be represented by:

- the Executive Committee, or

-two of the following officers acting together: President, Vice-President, Past-President, Treasurer or Secretary.

Additionally the Secretary will act as deputy for the President and the Treasurer will act as deputy for the Vice-President.

Board members can at all times, with reasons given, be suspended and expelled by the Annual General Meeting of the College.


Article 6. Annual General Meeting, Quorum and voting rights.

The Annual General Meeting of the College will be held each year during the Annual Meeting of the European College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists or at some other appropriate meeting agreed upon by the Officers.

An Extraordinary General Meeting of the College can be called at any time by the Executive Committee, or shall be called by the Executive Committee at the written request of not less than 10% of the membership. The request should contain the explanation for such a meeting, and the subsequent Extraordinary Meeting should take place within a period of three months of receipt of the request. If not the responsible members are empowered to summon the Extraordinary Meeting themselves.

The quorum required for holding a meeting is fifty per cent plus one, of the voting members of the College. Voting must be in person. The Executive Committee decides if the vote is to be taken orally or on paper. Votes can be “for” or “against”, or members can abstain. For all decisions, except amendments to the Constitution, or to confer Honorary Member status, a simple majority vote is sufficient.
The Executive Committee can hold an electronic ballot at any time outside the Annual General Meeting and Extraordinary General Meetings.
The same rules apply to electronic ballots as to voting during the Annual General Meeting and Extraordinary Meetings. An electronic ballot is only valid if a vote is registered on the secure section of the ECVO website, using unique passwords.

The Secretary of the College has to keep the minutes of every Annual General Meeting. These records must be signed by the Chairman of the Annual General Meeting and the Secretary.


Article 7. Amendments to this Constitution.

Proposed amendments to this Constitution shall be submitted to the President prior to the 31st of December. Any proposed amendment shall be distributed (by letter, fax or electronic mail) to the membership with a recommendation by the Officers, at least 30 days prior to the Annual General Meeting and shall be brought to a vote of the Diplomates at the Annual General Meeting. An affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the Diplomates voting shall be required for adoption. Every member of the Executive Committee is qualified to register amendments to the Constitution at the notary.


Article 8. Dissolution of the College.

In the event of dissolution of the College, or the College losing its status as a non profit-making organisation, the distribution of all assets shall be determined by the Annual General Meeting and, as far as possible, consistent with the objectives of the College.


Article 9. Bylaws

The College can make and change bylaws, which regulate subjects that are either not prescribed, or not sufficiently prescribed, in this Constitution. A bylaw shall not contain any provisions which violate the law, the rules of the EBVS, or this Constitution.

Berlin, May 2010



EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF VETERINARY OPHTHALMOLOGISTS (ECVO ®)
BYLAWS


(Amended Luxemburg, 11th April 1992)
(Amended Barcelona, 18th April 2002)
(Amended Munich, 10th June 2004)
(Amended Brugge, 11th May 2006)
(Amended Genova, 1st June 2007)
(Amended in Versailles, 16th May 2008)
(Amended in Copenhagen, 4th June 2009)
(Amended in Berlin, 27th May 2010)
(Amended in Berlin, 19th May 2011)
(Amended in Trieste, 23rd May 2012)
(Amended in Barcelona, 16th May 2013)
(Amended in Helsinki, 28th May 2015)


Article 1. General Assembly (Annual General Meeting) and membership

1.1. It is the duty of every active Diplomate to attend the Annual General Meeting at least once every two years. If the active Diplomate has not attended the AGM for three consecutive years without previous dispensation of the Executive Committee, the registration as active Diplomate ceases by default.

1.2. The General Assembly is the senior legislative body of the College and has the following duties:

a) To determine and update the Constitution and Bylaws;
b) To elect the Officers and Auditors.
Elections of officers shall be by written ballot at the Annual General Meeting. Written nominations must be received by the Executive Secretary at least one month prior to the annual General Meeting. Alternatively, nominations may be made from the floor.
c) Action on the auditors' report.
d) Formal approval of the business conducted by the Board during the preceding year. e) Action on business, presented by the Board or as required by the Constitution.
f) Establish membership dues for the forthcoming year.
g) Expulsion of Diplomates.

1.3. Honorary Members

The college may confer Honorary Member status on persons who have made exceptional contributions to veterinary ophthalmology. Honorary Members, who are ECVO-Diplomates, shall have all the rights and privileges of Diplomates. Honorary Members who are not ECVO- Diplomates, shall have all the rights and privileges of Diplomates except the right to vote, hold office, or attend Annual General Meetings of the College. The number of Honorary Members shall not be greater than 5% of the total number of the College Diplomates. Nomination for Honorary Member status requires proposal by two Diplomates of good standing. The proposal should be written and forwarded to the Secretary. It must contain such information relating to the activities of the nominee in ophthalmology as required by the Executive Committee.
Election of an Honorary member shall be accomplished by vote of at least two-thirds of the Executive Committee, and by a vote of at least two-thirds of the membership at the Annual General Meeting of the College.

1.4. Retired Diplomates

A Diplomate who voluntarily ceases practising permanently and irrevocably is entitled to Retired Diplomate status. Retired Diplomates maintain all privileges of Diplomates including advisory tasks, except the right to vote or hold office. They are excluded from article 4, sections 3, 4 and 5 of the Constitution of the ECVO. The Retired Diplomate is removed from the EBVS specialist register, but is authorised to use the designation Retired Diplomate ECVO (ret. Dip. ECVO).

1.5. Cessation of registration of Diplomates

Registration ceases by default when the speciality is practised insufficiently (e.g. not practising the speciality for more than 50% of their time based on a normal working week of 40 hours, with a minimum of 20 hours devoted to ophthalmology; the re-evaluation requirements are not met etc.), or when the specialty has not been practised for two continuous years or the equivalent of two years during a 5 year period. The Non-Practising Diplomate is removed from the EBVS specialist register, but is authorised to use the designation non-practising Diplomate (n.p. Dip. ECVO). A Non-Practising Diplomate has to satisfy the criteria determined by the Credentials Committee in order to regain full Diplomate status.

1.6. Associate Members

The College may confer Associate member status on persons who have contributed significantly to research in veterinary medicine. Admission criteria for Associate Members are defined by the Board of the College. These criteria have to ascertain that only scientists of international repute who are active in the field covered by the College are admitted as Associate Members, furthermore:

a) Associate Members are not conferred a diploma and are not entitled to use the designation of Diplomate of the ECVO;
b) Associate Members are encouraged to participate in the training of residents together with Diplomates of the College. Associate Members are not entitled to act as resident supervisors without a Diplomate responsible for the training program;
c) Associate Members are not allowed to hold office within the College or to vote at the Annual Business Meeting. They can be co-opted to College committees as advisors;
d) Associate Members are encouraged to participate in scientific meetings and workshops organised by the College;
e) Associate Members are not allowed to advertise their title.

1.7 Affiliate Members

The College may confer Affiliate Member status on Diplomates of other equivalent veterinary ophthalmology colleges, who are actively practising veterinary ophthalmology in Europe. Those who wish to apply for Affiliate Membership must do so in writing to the Chair of the Credentials Committee of the ECVO. A decision will be made within 60 days of receipt and the Credentials Committee will make recommendation to the Executive Committee of the ECVO for final approval, furthermore:

a) Affiliate Members are not entitled to use the designation of ECVO Diplomate, nor can they register with the EBVS and hold the title of European Specialist in Veterinary Ophthalmology;

b) Affiliate Members are not allowed to advertise their member status;

c) Affiliate Members cannot hold office within the Executive Committee of the ECVO, but they can be either elected or co-opted to other ECVO committees or act in an advisory capacity to these committees;

d) Affiliate Members are required to attend the Annual Business Meeting of the ECVO but cannot vote at this meeting;

e) Affiliate Members are expected to act as supervisors for ECVO residency training programmes;

f) Affiliate Members are expected to participate in scientific meetings and workshops organised by the ECVO;

g) Affiliate Members are required to participate in the ECVO reaccreditation process to maintain their member status;

h) Affiliate Members must be actively practising veterinary ophthalmology for more than 50% of their time, based on an average 40 hour working week. Recognition as an Affiliate Member ceases by default when:
the member ceases to practise in Europe;
the speciality is practised insufficiently;
the speciality has not been practised for two consecutive year or the equivalent of two years during a five year period.

Affiliate Members are bound by all other terms and conditions of the Constitution and Bylaws.


Article 2. Officers.

2.1. The officers of the College shall be: President, Vice-President, Secretary, Treasurer, and Past-President. The term of office for the President, Vice-President and Past-President is two years. The term of office for the Secretary and Treasurer is three years.

2.2. Election of officers shall be held at the Annual General Assembly of the College.


Article 3. Duties of Officers.

3.1. President:
The president shall preside at the meetings of the College, preserve order, regulate debates, appoint Committees not otherwise provided for, announce results of elections and perform all other duties legitimately appertaining to his/her office. The President of the College shall be Chairperson of the Finance Committee

3.2. Vice-President:
The vice-president shall perform the duties of the President in his/her absence or inability to serve. The Vice-President shall, in general, succeed to the Presidency at the end of the normal 2 year term or should the office fall vacant.

3.3. Secretary:
The secretary shall attend to the correspondence of the College, keep and publish lists annually of Diplomates, both Practising and Non-practising, keep minutes of the College meetings in records which shall be the property of the College and be accessible at all reasonable times and places and perform the usual duties of a secretary. The Secretary shall forward the Annual Report of the College to the EBVS before the 15th January of the following year.

3.4. Treasurer:
The treasurer shall advise the College on all financial matters. He/she shall arrange for the safekeeping of all funds, draw vouchers, pay bills and expenses, and submit a written financial statement to all members annually. He/she shall keep full and accurate books of account, containing a record of all monies received and expended, which books shall be the property of the College and open to the inspection of the authorized officials at all reasonable times and places.

3.5. Past-President:
The Past-President shall advise the President.

3.6. Vacancies in the offices:
Vacancies occurring on the Board shall be filled by election of a member at the next Annual General Meeting. Any member elected to fill a vacancy shall hold the office until expiry of the term in which the vacancy occurred.


Article 4. Committees

4.1. Executive Committee of the College:
The Executive Committee of the College shall consist of the officers and up to two co-opted Diplomates acceptable to the officers.

The Executive Committee shall consider all the business and policies pertaining to the affairs of the College. It, or its designated Committees, shall receive all applications, conduct examinations and certify recommendations for Diplomate status in the College. It shall consider and act upon charges against Diplomates for alleged offences against the Constitution and Bylaws of the College or charges of unprofessional conduct and shall have the authority to recommend the expulsion of a Diplomate for grievous offences.

It shall appoint standing or ad hoc Committees, as deemed necessary, select the time and place of meetings and determine the fees for application, examinations, registrations and other fees. It shall direct the management of funds held by the College.

The Past President and/or President and/or Vice-President will in general act as representatives on the European Board of Veterinary Specialization (EBVS), although the Executive Committee may choose to appoint any active Diplomate to serve as the College’s representative on the EBVS, preferably for a period of at least 2 years.

4.2. Credentials Committee:
The Credentials Committee shall be composed of four members appointed by the Executive Committee for a term of three years. The President shall be an ex officio member of this committee.
The senior member of the Committee in terms of service shall serve as Chairperson, unless the Executive Committee decides otherwise.

The duties of the Credentials Committee will be as follows:
a) to perform a preliminary assessment of the eligibility of applicants prior to their admission to any ECVO residency programme as described in Article 5.1.1a;
b) to establish guidelines (for credentials submission) to assist applicants with their application to sit the diploma examination;
c) to receive, review, and approve the candidacy of applicants;
d) to provide a list of candidates with approved credentials to the Examination Committee in a timely fashion.

4.3. Examination Committee:
The Examination Committee shall consist of four to seven members appointed by the Executive Committee for a term of three years. The President shall be an ex officio member of this Committee. The senior member of the Committee in terms of service shall serve as Chairperson, unless the Executive Committee decides otherwise.
The Examination Committee is responsible for the preparation and administration of diploma examinations. Results of examinations shall be forwarded by the Chairperson of the Examination Committee to the officers of the College with recommendations regarding the awarding of diplomas.

4.4. Nominating Committee:
The Nominating Committee shall be composed of three members appointed by the Executive Committee for a term of one year before the elections. The Committee shall prepare a list of candidates for the possible election to the Board of the College after a written call for candidates to all the Diplomates at least three months before the elections. The list of candidates should be known by the Diplomates one month before the elections. The Committee will report to the College at the Annual General Meeting.

4.5. Education and Residency Committee:
The Education and Residency Committee (E&RC) shall be composed of six to nine members appointed by the Executive Committee for a term of three years. The President shall be an ex officio member of this committee. The senior member of the Committee in terms of service shall serve as Chairperson, unless the Executive Committee decides otherwise. The Education and Residency Committee is responsible for setting criteria for the residency programmes, for approving the programmes and their sponsors, and for monitoring each resident's progress through the receipt of regular reports. The E&RC will maintain lists of approved residency programmes, approved supervisors and current residents. It will document detailed requirements for residency programmes that are necessary for approval by the ECVO.
In exceptional cases, a candidate whose circumstances do not permit enrolment in a formal programme may submit an equivalent, alternative programme, in cooperation with his/her supervisor, the College, and the resources available to the individual, for advanced study and experience. The equivalent programme should be approved by the E&RC before the candidate embarks on it.

The Education and Residency Committee will receive the required periodic reports from directors of resident training on:
a) the annual progress of each candidate in every ophthalmology residency (due on the anniversary of the residency)
b) details of each standard residency programme, in the form of an initial report with update and re-examination every five years (due at the Annual General Meeting). The E&RC will attest the adequacy of each programme when they approve the report.

4.6. Finance Committee:
The Finance Committee shall consist of three members, the President shall serve as Chairperson, and the Treasurer will be a member. The third member shall be appointed by the Executive Committee.
This Committee shall prepare an annual budget for the College, assist in preparing the Treasurer's accounts for the annual audit and advise the Board on financial affairs of the College.

4.7. Auditors:
Two auditors are elected by the General Assembly at the Annual General Meeting for a one year term. The two auditors review the accounts prepared by the Finance Committee and report their findings to the General Assembly. Only after their report, can the General Assembly discharge the Treasurer for his annual statement.

4.8. Re-evaluation Committee:
The Re-evaluation Committee shall consist of four to seven members appointed by the Executive Committee for a term of three years. The senior member of the Committee in terms of service shall serve as Chairperson, unless the Executive Committee decides otherwise.
The Re-evaluation Committee shall reassess the Diplomate status of every Diplomate every five (5) years by a 100 credit point re-evaluation system. The re-evaluation process will be effective as from January 1st 2003.
If any Diplomate has accrued insufficient points in the five years prior to re-evaluation, the Re- evaluation Committee will notify the Executive Committee and Diplomate of this deficiency. The Diplomate will need to satisfy the criteria determined by the Credentials Committee to be successfully re-accredited. Rarely, this may include re-sitting the examination at the discretion of the Credentials and Executive Committees.

4.9. Hereditary Eye Disease (HED) Committee:
a) The HED Committee shall consist of four to seven members appointed by the Executive Committee for a term of three years. The President shall be an ex officio member of this committee.  The senior member of the Committee in terms of service shall serve as Chairperson, unless the Executive Committee decides otherwise.
b) The HED Committee shall give definitions guidelines, recommendations and information for the ECVO hereditary eye disease Scheme for the examination of the animal eye and its adnexa for known inherited and presumed inherited eye diseases.
c) The HED Committee shall have an Advisory Committee consisting of one or, for panels performing more than 5000 examinations per year, a maximum of two appointed representatives from each of the active panels of the ECVO HED Scheme.

4.10 Communications Committee:
The Communications Committee shall be composed of four to six members appointed by the Executive Committee for a term of three years. The senior member of the committee in terms of service shall serve as Chairperson, unless the Executive Committee decides otherwise. The Executive Secretary shall serve as a member of the committee ex officio.

The duties of the Communications Committee will be as follows:
a) To enhance the public and professional profile of the ECVO through development of website content, social media and promotional materials;
b) To provide a mechanism for effective communication between ECVO, its members, residents, potential residents, members of the public and general practitioners;
c) To ensure that ECVO retains rights to website content and possesses all necessary hosting information and passwords to access that content.

4.11 Planning Committee:
The Planning Committee shall be composed of four to six members appointed by the Executive Committee for a term of three years. The senior member of the committee in terms of service will serve as Chairperson, unless the Executive Committee decides otherwise. The Treasurer and Vice-President shall serve as members of the committee ex officio.

The duties of the Planning Committee will be as follows:
a) To propose date(s) and location of the Annual Meeting in conjunction with the Professional Conference Organizer (PCO) and in accordance with standard operating procedures);
b) To prepare a provisional budget for each Annual Meeting in collaboration with the PCO;
c) To promote the Annual Meeting in accordance with the standard operating procedures;
d) To determine and update, on an annual basis, the Decision Taking Procedures (DTPs) including deadlines for all committees involved in Annual Meeting organization;
e) To orchestrate the activities of other committees involved in Annual Meeting organization and serve as the main relay point in communications between these committees, the PCO and Executive Committee.

4.12 Scientific Committee:
The Scientific Committee shall be composed of up to eight members appointed by the Executive Committee for a term of three years. The senior member of the committee in terms of service shall serve as Chairperson, unless the Executive Committee decides otherwise.

The duties of the Scientific Committee will be as follows:
a) To determine appropriate scientific topics for the program of the annual scientific meeting, identify and make initial contact with potential invited speakers to provide this content;
b) To solicit and critically review abstracts for the annual scientific meeting;
c) To select and assign oral and poster presentations based on abstracts submitted;
d) To establish the program schedule for the scientific meeting in collaboration with the PCO; e) To assign session chairpersons for the annual scientific meetings;
f) To provide guidelines for, and to solicit grant proposals for ECVO-sponsored research.

4.13. Indemnification:
Members of Committees will receive no indemnification.

4.14 Standard Operating Procedures:
Details of operating procedures for the Committees are to be described in the Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) documents. SOP documents are made following agreement between the relevant Committee members and the Executive Committee.


Article 5. Diploma

5.1. Qualifications to sit the diploma examination:

The candidate should possess a veterinary degree from an EAEVE-approved veterinary school, unless relieved of this obligation by the Credentials Committee.

Three categories of candidates will be allowed to sit the examination:
1) those giving evidence of satisfactory completion of a pre-approved regular residency training programme, of at least four years by the application deadline, of general veterinary education, training, and practice and of special education, training, and practice of veterinary ophthalmology, both after the date of graduation from veterinary school.

The following sequence of training is to be used:
a) A first period with a minimum of one year must be a rotating internship, or its equivalent, as defined by the ECVO Credentials Committee;
b) A second residency period shall comprise a postgraduate training programme with a minimum of three years under supervision of Diplomates of the ECVO or its equivalent, at the discretion of the ECVO Credentials Committee. This period is designed to educate the resident primarily in the art and science of ophthalmology. There shall be additional instruction in the related disciplines of radiology, anaesthesiology, clinical pathology and the basic sciences of anatomy, physiology, and pathology.

2) those with a pre-approved alternative residency trainingprogramme, with a minimum of one year of a rotating internship or two years in general practice and at least three years in the discipline of veterinary ophthalmology under supervision of Diplomates of the ECVO, or its equivalent, at the discretion of the Credentials Committee;

There shall be no restriction of training institutions as long as they meet the requirements for an ECVO-approved residency.
A Supervisor shall have no more than two (2) residents; in exceptional cases the Education and Residency Committee can allow three (3) residents, for a restricted period. Each supervisor shall prepare a statement that the candidate has satisfactorily completed the approved time of training.

3) those who are internationally recognized in the field of veterinary ophthalmology with assessment by other means at the discretion of the Credentials Committee and the Executive Committee.

In addition all categories shall meet the requirements for written reports which are:
- one (1) original, ophthalmological, internationally peer reviewed paper of which the applicant must be the principal author and the paper has been accepted, which includes an extensive, informative English written summary and is indexed in the publication databases CAB or PubMed;
- one (1) ophthalmological, internationally peer reviewed case report or original paper of which the applicant is author or co-author and the paper has been accepted, which includes an extensive, informative English written summary and is indexed in the publication databases CAB or PubMed.

5.2. Examination:
The examination will include:
1. a written section of multiple choice and/or essay questions;
2. a written section based on images of ophthalmic (related) diseases followed by multiple choice and/or essay questions;
3. a practical section ofcadaver and/or live case evaluation, where clinical and surgical competences and skills are examined (practically and orally)

The candidate shall sit the full exam within 3 years after the satisfactory completion of their approved residency training programme of the ECVO (Art 5.1.1.b.), unless exempted by the Credentials Committee.

The examination shall be taken in English only; the use of non-medical dictionaries during examinations or a non-medical interpreter during oral examination is permitted.

The candidate shall submit the non-refundable examination fee, which shall be determined annually, at the time of application.

Candidates must pass the examination within eight years of the completion of the residency programme. The candidate may sit the examination on a total of four (4) occasions only. Applications of candidates to sit the examination on second and subsequent occasions shall be reviewed and approved annually by the incoming Examination Committee chairperson and the incoming Credentials Committee chairperson.
Credentials of candidates who pass the examination will be forwarded to the President by the Chairperson of the Examination Committee.
Further details of the requirements for the training programme, admission, application procedure, and the qualifying examination may be provided in a separate information brochure of the College.


Article 6. Finances.

The College is a non-profit-making organisation. The expenses of the College shall be met through various sources of income.
a) Donations from companies and international organisations.
b) Income from educational meetings organized by the College.
c) Investment income.
d) Annual dues

6.1.
a) The financial year begins on the first of January and ends on the thirty-first of December of each year.
As an exception the first financial year shall begin on the registration date of the College and end on the thirty-first of December 1992.
b) The accounts of the last financial year and the budget of the following financial year shall be submitted annually for the approval to the Annual General Meeting not later than the thirtieth of April.

6.2. Annual dues
The annual dues (Euro) of each active member for the following years shall be determined by the General Assembly. Dues are payable by the Annual General Meeting of each year. Members shall be adjudged delinquent if they are one year in arrears, and may be voted for removal by the membership if two years have elapsed without payment.
ECVO Diplomates by examination do not pay dues in the first year of joining the College.

The Retired Diplomate and Honorary Member will not be required to pay dues to the College nor an EBVS fee. The Non-Practising Diplomate of the College will be required to pay reduced dues to the College and the standard EBVS fee. The Retired Diplomate and Honorary Member will not be required to pay dues to the College nor an EBVS fee. The Non-Practising Diplomate of the College will be required to pay reduced dues to the College and the standard EBVS fee. The Affiliate Member will be required to pay the standard dues to the College but not the EBVS fee.

6.3. Insurance
The College is required to maintain insurance to indemnify itself against legal costs.


Article 7. Meetings.

The Executive Committee and the Chairpersons of the Credentials and Examination Committees shall meet at least once annually between consecutive Annual General Meetings, when judged appropriate by the President.


Article 8. Amendments.

These BYLAWS may be amended at any Annual General Meeting by two-thirds of the votes cast. Proposed amendments must be submitted in writing to the Secretary minimum 60 days before the meeting, for appropriate review by the Executive Committee. Proposed amendments shall be distributed (by letter, fax or electronic mail) to the membership within thirty days of its appointment.


Article 9. Appeal against Adverse Decisions

9.1. Adverse decisions by the College include, but are not limited to:
a) denial of approval of a training (residency) programme
b) denial of adequacy of an individual's credential
c) denial of Diplomate status to an individual
d) temporary or permanent suspension of a Diplomate

In the event of an adverse decision by the College, the Secretary shall notify the affected person or the Dean of a college or official of an institution or practice organisation in which the affected training programme is located, and advise them of the procedure for appealing against the adverse decision.

The College will charge a fee, payable in advance, to cover the administrative expenses of any appeal. The fee must be deposited in the bank account of the College, and a receipt for this deposit sent by the appellant at the time of submission of the other documentation of the appeal.

9.2. Any candidate who wishes to appeal against the decision on their application for eligibility to sit the examination must do so within 90 days of the date and time stamp of their notification. The request for appeal must be made in writing to the Secretary and shall include a statement of the grounds for reconsideration and documentation in support of the petition.
The Secretary shall notify the President of the College and the Chairperson of the Credentials Committee. The President shall appoint a committee of three Diplomates who are not officers, or members of the Education and Residency Committee, or members of the Credentials Committee to serve as an Appeals Committee, within 30 days of notice of an appeal, indicating the reason(s) for rejecting the candidate. The complete dossier of the candidate will be provided for the Appeals Committee to review.
The Appeals Committee shall return its verdict within 60 days of its appointment.

9.3. Any candidate who wishes to appeal against the decision on failure in the examination must do so within 90 days of the date and time stamp of his/her notification. The request for appeal must be made in writing to the Secretary and shall include a statement of the grounds for reconsideration and documentation in support of the petition.
The Secretary shall notify the President of the College and the Chairperson of the appropriate Examination Committee. The President shall appoint a committee of three Diplomates who are not officers or members of the Examination Committee to serve as an Appeals Committee within 30 days of notice of an appeal. The Chairperson of the Examination Committee shall submit the examination and scores of the candidate, the complete list of scores of all candidates on that examination, and a statement of the criteria used for the Committee's recommendation for pass and fail to the Appeals Committee indicating the reason(s) for rejecting the candidate.
The Appeals Committee shall return its verdict within 60 days of its appointment.

9.4 Any Dean of a college, or official of an institution or practice organisation, who wishes to appeal against the decision on the denial of approval or withdrawal of approval of a training programme must do so within 90 days of the date and time stamp of the adverse notification. The request for appeal must be made in writing to the Secretary and shall include a statement of the grounds for reconsideration and documentation in support of the petition.
The Secretary shall notify the President of the College and the Chairperson Education and Residency Committee. The President shall appoint a committee of three Diplomates who are not officers or members of the Education and Residency Committee to serve as an Appeals Committee within 30 days of notice of an appeal. The Chairperson of the Education and Residency Committee shall submit a written statement to the Appeals Committee indicating the reason(s) for denial of approval of the training programme.
The Appeals Committee shall return its verdict within 60 days of its appointment.

9.5 After completion of the appropriate procedure as described above, the affected party, if not satisfied with the final decision rendered by the ECVO Appeals Committee, may request mediation by European Board of Veterinary Specialization.
The President of the ECVO will present the Board's decision to the EBVS who will inform him/her of their decision afterwards. The decision of the EBVS is final.